The island of Pemba known as ‘Al Jazeera Al Khadra’ (the green island, in Arabic) is an island forming part of the Zanzibar archipelago, lying off the east coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean. It is situated about 50 kilometres to the north of the island of Zanzibar. In the 1960s Zanzibar was united with the former colony of Tanganyika to form Tanzania. It lies 50 kilometres east of mainland Tanzania. Together with Mafia Island (south of Zanzibar), they form the Spice Islands (not to be confused with Maluku Islands of Indonesia). In 1988, the estimated population was 265,000, with an area of 980 km².