The island of Pemba known as ‘Al Jazeera Al Khadra’ (the green island, in Arabic) is an island forming part of the Zanzibar archipelago, lying off the east coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean. It is situated about 50 kilometres to the north of the island of Zanzibar. In the 1960s Zanzibar was united with the former colony of Tanganyika to form Tanzania. It lies 50 kilometres east of mainland Tanzania. Together with Mafia Island (south of Zanzibar), they form the Spice Islands (not to be confused with Maluku Islands of Indonesia). In 1988, the estimated population was 265,000, with an area of 980 km².
Most of the island, which is hillier and more fertile than Zanzibar, is dominated by small scale farming. There is large scale farming of cash crops such as cloves — there are over 3 million clove trees.
Pemba is also becoming well-known for its dive sites, with vertiginous drop-offs, untouched coral and very abundant marine life. The central town Chake-Chake is located on a hill with a view to the west on the bay and the tiny Misali island where the tides determine when a dhow can enter the harbour.